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“This RESOURCES section is a work-in-progress. Contributions are welcome for all categories. Please send in a one sentence explanation and then the link.” email:

The GI Press, 1964-1977

This collection contains over 88,000 page images with searchable text taken from more than 2,400 periodicals and other items such as pamphlets and posters created by or for US military personnel during the Vietnam War era. Many were produced underground by US soldiers or veterans who opposed the war, using mimeograph machines or other inexpensive technology. These materials document the Vietnam War through the words of young people caught up in it. It is intended to complement official records published by the US government and the civilian underground press of the time, both of which are readily available elsewhere.

GI Press Collection Wisconsin Historical Society



International Institute of Social History, Amsterdam


This collection contains newspapers, newsletters and press releases, issued in various countries 1969-1978. The most important items are some 650 various titles of periodicals of the GI Movement. Important titles are ACT - The RITA’s [Resisters Inside the Army] Newsletter (Paris) 1968-1970, The Bond (Berkeley-New York) 1967-1974 and Overseas weekly (Frankfurt am Main) 1969-1973. In addition, there is also a large group of about 150 periodical titles relating to anti-war activity and military service issues in various countries. Besides the periodicals there is also a considerable quantity of GI Press ephemera, arranged by organization and author.  There are also materials regarding individual deserters, their organizations and collective GI actions.

Collection of GI Press, Deserters and Protest During the Vietnam War



Directory of Archival and Manuscript Collections related to the Experience of the Vietnam War created by Lasalle University


This comprehensive archive includes four sections:


I. Vietnam War Veteran Writers

II. Prominent Vietnam War Writers

III. GI Resistance Writing and Small Press Archives

IV. Collections in the United States


The National Archives at College Park, Maryland

This official government archive includes complete military archives for each unit of the military, for all major incidents.


National Archives at College Park, Maryland


Swarthmore College Peace Collection

Extensive catalog of their holdings and others, including David Cortwright papers and photographic collections.

Swarthmore College Peace Collection


Tamiment Library, New York University

Extensive collection of archival materials from the GI movement and progressive movements.

The Tamiment Library & Robert F. Wagner Labor Archives


Pacific Northwest Antiwar and Radical History Project, University of Washington, Seattle

Includes a special section devoted to antiwar GI and veteran organizing at Fort Lewis Army Base and McChord Air Force Base near Tacoma, complete with a timeline, oral histories, and digitized copies of GI antiwar newspapers.


Antiwar and Radical History Project – Pacific Northwest


Sir! No Sir! GI Movement Archives

Materials that David Zeiger collected with assistance from William Short and James Lewis, in support of his film Sir! No Sir! about the Gi Movement.  They are divided into three categories.

  • Audio archives include recordings, by GI movement activists, that were originally broadcast on Radio Free People in 1969, a 7- minute tape, made by Jane Fonda in 1970, for GIs at Fort Bliss and selections of broadcasts made by Dave Rabbit/Radio First Termer in 1971.


  • The Galleries contain more than 1500 images, subdivided into three sections - Cartoons, GI Newspaper Covers and Photographs. The cartoons and photographs are organized according to subject matter and the GI Newspaper covers are organized by title of publication.
  • Libraries offer a wide variety of supporting materials (including articles published in the GI press, pamphlets, petitions and posters) for the events and activists featured in the film, as well as access to a large body of primary source materials placing the events featured in the film in the context of similar events that occurred between 1965 and 1973.


Sir! No Sir!  GI Movement Archives


The Sixties Project

Includes archival materials, books, articles and transcript of the Winter Soldier Investigation of 1971.

The Sixties Project


Vietnam Center, Archive, and Museum of the Vietnam War at Texas Tech University

The Vietnam Center and Archive has been collecting, preserving, and providing access to the history of the Vietnam War while encouraging research and education regarding all aspects of that experience. This collection includes:

  • Manuscript, Artifact, and Material Collections
  • Online Access through the Virtual Vietnam Archive
  • Participant Interviews for the Oral History Project
  • Conferences, Symposia, Events, and Study Abroad


Vietnam Center, Archive, and Museum of the Vietnam War at Texas Tech University.




Books and Articles



Albert, Judith Clavir, and Stewart Edward Albert, eds. The Sixties Papers: Documents of a Rebellious Decade. New York: Praeger, 1987.

Allah, Wakeel. In the Name of Allah: A History of Clarence 13X and the Five Percenters. Atlanta: A-Team Publishing, 2007.

Appy, Christian. Patriots: The Vietnam War Remembered from All Sides. New York: Viking, 2003.

Appy, Christian. Working Class War: American Combat Soldiers and Vietnam. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1993.

Bailey, Beth. America’s Army: Making the All-Volunteer Force. Cambridge: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2009.

Barber, David. A Hard Rain Fell: SDS and Why It Failed. Jackson: University Press of Mississippi, 2008.

Barnes, Peter. Pawns: The Plight of the Citizen-Soldier. New York: Knopf, 1972.

Bass, Jack, and Jack Nelson. The Orangeburg Massacre. New York: World Publishing, 1970.

Bederman, Gail. Manliness and Civilization: A Cultural History of Gender and Race in the United States, 1880–1917. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1995.

Bell County Historical Commission. Story of Bell County, Texas. 2 vols. Austin: Eakin Press, 1988.

Boyle, Brenda. Masculinity in Vietnam War Narratives: A Critical Study of Fiction, Films and Nonfiction Writings. Jefferson, N.C.: McFarland, 2009.

Boyle, Richard. The Flower of the Dragon: The Breakdown of the U.S. Army in Vietnam. San Francisco: Ramparts Press, 1972.

Braunstein, Peter, and Michael William Doyle, eds. Imagine Nation: The American            Counterculture of the 1960s and ’70s. New York: Routledge, 2002.

Buzzanco, Robert. Masters of War: Military Dissent and Politics in the Vietnam Era. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996.

Chambers, John Whiteclay, ed. The Oxford Companion to American Military History. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000.

Cincinnatus. Self-Destruction: The Disintegration and Decay of the United States Army during the Vietnam Era. New York: W. W. Norton, 1981.

Cohen, Lizabeth. A Consumers’ Republic: The Politics of Mass Consumption in Postwar America. New York: Knopf, 2003.

Conroy, David. In Public Houses: Drink and the Revolution of Authority in Colonial          Massachusetts. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1995.

Cortright, David. Soldiers in Revolt: The American Military Today. New York: Anchor Press, 1975.

Cunningham, David. There’s Something Happening Here: The New Left, the Klan, and FBI Counterintelligence. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2005.

Daly, Christopher. Covering America: A Narrative History of a Nation’s Journalism. Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 2012.

Davis, James Kirkpatrick. Assault on the Left: The FBI and the Sixties Antiwar Movement. Westport, Conn.: Praeger, 1997.

DeBenedetti, Charles, and Charles Chatfield. An American Ordeal: The Antiwar Movement of the Vietnam Era. Syracuse: Syracuse University Press, 1990.

Dickerson, James. North to Canada: Men and Women against the Vietnam War. Westport, Conn.: Praeger, 1999.

Duncan, Gra’Delle. Killeen: A Tale of Two Cities. Austin: Eakin Press, 1984.

Duncan, Randy, and Matthew J. Smith. The Power of Comics: History, Form, and Culture. New York: Continuum, 2009.

Engelhardt, Tom. The End of Victory Culture: Cold War America and the Disillusioning of a Generation. New York: Basic Books, 1995.

Enke, Anne. Finding the Movement: Sexuality, Contested Space, and Feminist Activism.     Durham: Duke University Press, 2007.

Farber, David. Chicago ’68. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1994.

Fergus, Devin. Liberalism, Black Power, and the Making of American Politics, 1965–1980. Athens: University of Georgia Press, 2009.

Finley, Erin P. Fields of Combat: Understanding PTSD among Veterans of Iraq and         Afghanistan. Ithaca: Cornell University Press (ILR), 2011.

Flynn, George Q. The Draft: 1940–1973, Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 1993.

Foley, Michael S. Confronting the War Machine: Draft Resistance during the Vietnam War. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2003.

Frank, Thomas. The Conquest of Cool: Business Culture, Counterculture, and the Rise of Hip Consumerism. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1997.

Franklin, H. Bruce. Vietnam and Other American Fantasies. Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 2000.

Gabriel, Richard A., and Paul L. Savage. Crisis in Command: Mismanagement in the Army. New York: Hill and Wang, 1978.

Gallacci, Caroline, and Ron Karabaich. Tacoma’s Waterfront. Charleston, S.C.: Arcadia, 2006.

Gardner, Fred. The Unlawful Concert: An Account of the Presidio Mutiny Case. New York: Viking Press, 1970.

Garfinkle, Adam M. Telltale Hearts: The Origins and Impact of the Vietnam Antiwar Movement. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1995.

Garrett, Banning, and Katherine Barkley, eds. Two, Three . . . Many Vietnams: A Radical Reader on the Wars in Southeast Asia and the Conflicts at Home. San Francisco: Canfield Press, 1971.

Gitlin, Todd. The Sixties: Years of Hope, Days of Rage. New York: Bantam Books, 1987.

Goodman, Mitchell. The Movement toward a New America: The Beginning of a Long Revolution. Philadelphia: Pilgrim Press, 1970.

Griffith, Robert K. The U.S. Army’s Transition to the All-Volunteer Force, 1968–1974. Washington, D.C.: Center of Military History, U.S. Army, 1997.

Haas, Jeffrey. The Assassination of Fred Hampton: How the FBI and the Chicago Police   Murdered a Black Panther. Chicago: Chicago Review Press, 2009.

Hajdu, David. The Ten-Cent Plague: The Great Comic Book Scare and How It Changed America. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2008.

Halstead, Fred. GIs Speak Out against the War: The Case of the Ft. Jackson 8. New York: Pathfinder Press, 1970.

Halstead, Fred. Out Now! A Participant’s Account of the American Movement against the Vietnam War. New York: Monad Press, 1978.

Heath, G. Louis, ed. Mutiny Does Not Happen Lightly: The Literature of American Resistance to the Vietnam War. Metuchen, N.J.: Scarecrow Press, 1976.

Helmer, John. Bringing the War Home: The American Soldier in Vietnam and After. New York: Macmillan, 1974.

Herbert, Melissa S. Camouflage Isn’t Only for Combat: Gender, Sexuality, and Women in the Military. New York: New York University Press, 1998.

Hershberger, Mary. Jane Fonda’s War: A Political Biography of an Antiwar Icon. New York: New Press, 2005.

Hunt, Andrew E. The Turning: A History of Vietnam Veterans Against the War. New York: New York University Press, 1999.

Isserman, Maurice. If I Had a Hammer: The Death of the Old Left and the Birth of the New Left. New York: Basic Books, 1987.

Jeffreys-Jones, Rhodri. The FBI: A History. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2008.

Jones, Edgar, and Simon Wessely. Shell Shock to PTSD: Military Psychiatry from 1900 to the Gulf War. New York: Psychology Press, 2005.

Joseph, Peniel. Waiting ’til the Midnight Hour: A Narrative History of Black Power in America. New York: Henry Holt, 2006.

King, Edward. The Death of the Army: A Pre-mortem. New York: Saturday Review Press: 1972.

Learner, Laurence. Paper Revolutionaries: The Rise of the Underground Press. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1972.

Lembke, Jerry. The Spitting Image: Myth, Memory, and the Legacy of Vietnam. New York: New York University Press, 1998.

Lepre, George. Fragging. Lubbock: Texas Tech University Press, 2011.

Lesesne, Henry H. A History of the University of South Carolina, 1940–2000. Columbia: University of South Carolina Press, 2001.

Lewes, James. Protest and Survive: Underground GI Newspapers during the Vietnam War. Westport, Conn.: Praeger, 2003.

Lewis, Penny. Hard Hats, Hippies, and Hawks: The Vietnam Antiwar Movement as Myth and Memory. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2013.

Lifton, Robert Jay. Home from the War: Vietnam Veterans; Neither Victims nor Executioners. New York: Basic Books, 1973.

Lutz, Catherine. Homefront: A Military City and the American Twentieth Century. Boston: Beacon Press, 2001.

Lynd, Alice, ed. We Won’t Go: Personal Accounts of War Objectors. Boston: Beacon Press, 1968.

McCallum, Chris. Yes to the Troops, No to the Wars: Quaker House, 40 Years of Front-line Peace Witness. Catawissa, PA: Quaker House Books, 2009.

Miller, James. Democracy Is in the Streets: From Port Huron to the Siege of Chicago. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1987.

Moore, John Hammond. Columbia and Richland County: A South Carolina Community, 1740–1990. Columbia: University of South Carolina Press, 1993.

Moser, Richard. The New Winter Soldiers: GI and Veteran Dissent during the Vietnam Era. New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers University Press, 1996.

Myers, Andrew H. Black, White, and Olive Drab: Racial Integration at Fort Jackson, South Carolina. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 2006.

Navasky, Victor S. Naming Names. New York: Hill and Wang, 2003.

Nicosia, Gerald. Home to War: A History of the Vietnam Veterans’ Movement. New York: Three Rivers Press, 2001.

Oldenburg, Ray. The Great Good Place: Cafés, Coffee Shops, Community Centers, Beauty Parlors, General Stores, Bars, Hangouts, and How They Get You through the Day. New York: Paragon House, 1989.

Oppenheimer, Martin, ed. The American Military. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction, 1971.

Ostertag, Bob. People’s Movements, People’s Press: The Journalism of Social Justice Movements. Boston: Beacon Press, 2006.

Parsons, David L. Dangerous Grounds: Antiwar Coffeehouses and Military Dissent in the Vietnam Era. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2017.

Pattison, Robert. The Triumph of Vulgarity: Rock Music in the Mirror of Romanticism. New York: Oxford University Press, 1987.

Peck, Abe. Uncovering the Sixties: The Life and Times of the Underground Press. New York: Pantheon Books, 1985.

Pendergrast, Mark. Uncommon Grounds: The History of Coffee and How It Changed Our World. New York: Basic Books, 1999.

Perlstein, Rick. Nixonland: The Rise of a President and the Fracturing of America. New York: Scribner, 2008.

Putnam, Robert. Bowling Alone: The Collapse and Revival of American Community. New York: Simon and Schuster, 2001.

Rossinow, Doug. “The Revolution Is about Our Lives: The New Left’s Counterculture.” In Imagine Nation: The American Counterculture of the 1960s and ’70s, edited by Peter Braunstein and Michael William Doyle, 99-104. New York: Routledge, 2002.

Rostker, Bernard. I Want You! The Evolution of the All-Volunteer Force. Santa Monica, CA: RAND Corporation, 2006.

Rowe, John Carlos, and Rick Berg, eds. The Vietnam War and American Culture. New York: Columbia University Press, 1991.

Sale, Kirkpatrick. SDS. New York: Vintage Books, 1974.

Sayre, Nora. Sixties Going on Seventies: Revised Edition. New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers University Press, 1996.

Sayres, Sohnya, et al., eds. The 60s without Apology. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1984.

Schulman, Bruce J. From Cotton Belt to Sunbelt: Federal Policy, Economic Development, and the Transformation of the South, 1938–1980. Durham: Duke University Press, 1994.

Schulman, Bruce J. The Seventies: The Great Shift in American Culture, Society, and Politics. Cambridge, Mass.: Da Capo Press, 2001

Schulzinger, Robert D. A Companion to American Foreign Relations. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing, 2003.

Shafer, D. Michael. The Legacy: The Vietnam War in the American Imagination. Boston: Beacon Press, 1990.

Sherrill, Robert. Military Justice Is to Justice as Military Music Is to Music. New York: Harper and Row, 1970.

Short, William and Willa Seidenberg. A Matter of Conscience: GI Resistance During the Vietnam War. Andover: Addison Gallery of American Art, 1992.

Small, Melvin. Antiwarriors: The Vietnam War and the Battle for America’s Hearts and Minds. Wilmington, Del.: SR Books, 2002.

Small, Melvin, and William D Hoover, eds. Give Peace a Chance: Exploring the Vietnam   Antiwar Movement. Syracuse: Syracuse University Press, 1992.

Sorkin, Michael. Variations on a Theme Park: The New American City and the End of Public Space. New York: Macmillan, 1992.

Sossi, Ron, ed. Voices of the Chicago Eight: A Generation on Trial. San Francisco: City Lights Books, 2008.

Stacewicz, Richard. Winter Soldiers: An Oral History of the Vietnam Veterans Against the War. New York: Twayne, 1997.

Staples, William G. The Encyclopedia of Privacy. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 2007.

Stapp, Andy. Up against the Brass. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1970.

Starr, Paul. The Creation of the Media: Political Origins of Mass Communication. New York: Basic Books, 2005.

Swarner, Ken. The Evergreen Post: A History of Fort Lewis. Tacoma, Wash.: Ranger Publishing, 1993.

Terry, Wallace, ed. Bloods: An Oral History of the Vietnam War. New York: Random House, 1984.

Wachsberger, Ken. Voices from the Underground: Insider Histories of the Vietnam Era (Vols. 1 & 2). Tempe: Mica Press, 1993.

Waterhouse, Larry G., and Mariann G. Wizard. Turning the Guns Around: Notes on the GI Movement. New York: Praeger, 1971.

Waters, Mary Alice. GIs and the Fight Against the War. New York: Young Socialist Alliance, 1967.

Wells, Tom. The War Within: America’s Battle over Vietnam. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1994.

Westheider, James E. Brothers in Arms: The African American Experience in Vietnam. Lanham, Md.: Rowman and Littlefield, 2008.

Westin, Av, and Stephanie Shaffer. Heroes and Heroin: The Shocking Story of Drug Addiction in the Military. New York: Pocket Books, 1972.

Wills, Garry. Nixon Agonistes: The Crisis of the Self-Made Man. New York: Houghton Mifflin, 1969.

Wolfe, Tom. The Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test. New York: Bantam Books, 1969.

Wood, David. What Have We Don: The Moral Injury of our Longest Wars. Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 2016.

Yellin, Emily. Our Mothers’ War: American Women at Home and at the Front during World War II. New York: Simon and Schuster, 2005.

Young, Marilyn. The Vietnam Wars: 1945–1990. New York: HarperCollins, 1991.

Zeiger, David. History of the Oleo Strut Coffeehouse, 1968–1972.

Zinn, Howard. A People’s History of the United States: 1492–Present. New York: HarperCollins, 1980.

Zinn, Howard. The Power of Nonviolence: Writings by Advocates of Peace. Boston: Beacon Press, 2002.





Duncan, Donald. The New Legions. New York: Random House, 1967.

Faith, William Robert. Bob Hope: A Life in Comedy. Cambridge, Mass.: Da Capo Press, 2003.

Feiffer, Jules. Backing into Forward: A Memoir. New York: Doubleday, 2010.

Fonda, Jane. My Life So Far. New York: Random House, 2005.

Hoffman, Abbie. Soon to Be a Major Motion Picture. New York: Putnam, 1980.

Hunt, Andrew E. David Dellinger: The Life and Times of a Nonviolent Revolutionary. New York: New York University Press, 2006.

Levy, Howard and David Miller. Going to Jail: The Political Prisoner. New York: Grove Press, 1976.

Reston, James Jr. The Amnesty of John David Herndon. New York: Bantam Books, 1974.

Smith, George E. P.O.W. Two Years with the Vietcong. San Francisco: Ramparts Press, 1971.

Uhl, Michael. Vietnam Awakening: My Journey from Combat to the Citizens’ Commission of Inquiry on U.S. War Crimes in Vietnam. Jefferson, N.C.: McFarland, 2007.





Giles, Doris B. “The Antiwar Movement in Columbia, South Carolina 1965–1972.” Seminar paper, South Caroliniana Library, University of South Carolina, Columbia, 1987.

Haines, Harry William. “The GI Underground Press: Two Case Studies of Alternative Military Newspapers.” Master’s thesis, University of Utah, 1976.

Hayes, James Robert. “The War within a War: Dissent in the Military with an Emphasis upon the Vietnam-Era.” Ph.D. diss., University of Connecticut, 1975.

Hensley, William Edward. “The Vietnam Anti-war Movement: History and Criticism.” Ph.D. diss., University of Oregon, 1979.

Keeney, Craig Mury. “Resistance: A History of Anti–Vietnam War Protests in Two Southern Universities, 1966–1970.” Master’s thesis, University of South Carolina, Columbia, 2003.

Kindig, Jessie. “Demilitarized Zone: The GI Movement and the Reorganization of the Military at Fort Lewis during the Vietnam War.” Master’s thesis, University of Washington, Seattle, 2008.

Kramer, Michael Jacob. “The Civics of Rock: Sixties Countercultural Music and the Transformation of the Public Sphere.” Ph.D. diss., University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, 2006.

Lair, Meredith H. “Beauty, Bullets, and Ice Cream: Re-imagining Daily Life in the ’Nam.” Ph.D. diss., Pennsylvania State University, 2004.

Lee, Sam J. “Fed Up at Fort Lewis: A Regional History of the GI Protest Movement against the War in Vietnam.” Master’s thesis, Washington State University, 1997.

Moser, Richard. “From Deference to Defiance: America, the Citizen-Soldier and the          Vietnam Era.” Ph.D. diss., Rutgers University Press, 1996.

Nobile, Vincent. “Political Opposition in the Age of Mass Media: GIs and Veterans against the War in Vietnam” Ph.D. diss., University of California at Irvine, 1987.

Retzer, Joseph David. “War and Political Ideology: The Roots of Radicalism among          Vietnam Veterans.” Ph.D. diss., Yale University, 1976.

Saunders, Alice. “Vietnam Vets against the War: The People’s House in Clarksville, Tennessee (1970–1972).” Research paper, Northeastern University, 2007.

Seidman, Derek W. “The Unquiet Americans: GI Dissent during the Vietnam War.” Ph.D. diss., Brown University, 2010.

Stacewicz, Richard A. “Winter Soldiers: An Oral History of the Vietnam Veterans Against the War.” Ph.D. diss., University of Illinois, Chicago, 1997.




Reports and Investigations


Olson, Howard C., and R. William Rae. Determination of the Potential for Dissidence in the US Army. McLean, Va.: Research Analysis Corp., 1971.

United States. Congress. House. Committee on Internal Security. Investigation of Attempts to Subvert the United States Armed Services, Parts 1–3: Hearings, Ninety-Second Congress, First Session. Washington, D.C: GPO, 1972.

United States. Congress. House. Committee on Internal Security. Subversive Involvement in Disruption of 1968 Democratic Party National Convention: Hearings before the Committee on Un-American Activities, House of Representatives, Ninetieth Congress, Second Session. Washington, D.C.: GPO, 1968.

United States. Congress. House. Committee on Internal Security. The Workers World Party and Its Front Organizations. Washington: United States Congress, 1974.

United States. Congressional Black Caucus Report. Congressional Record. 92nd Congress, 2nd Session. Washington, D.C., October 14, 1972.

U.S. District Court for the District of South Carolina (Columbia Division). The U.F.O., Inc., et al. v. E. Harry Agnew. Trial Transcript, April 25, 1970.

Vineberg, Robert, and Elaine N. Taylor. Summary and Review of Studies of the VOLAR Experiment, 1971: Installation Reports for Forts Benning, Bragg, Carson, and Ord. Alexandria, Va.: Human Resources Research Organization, 1972.

Westinghouse Electric Corporation, Center for Advanced Studies and Analyses. “Potential Impact of Cultural Change on the Navy in the 1970s.” August 1, 1972.





Anderson, Terry H. “The GI Movement and the Response from the Brass.” In Give Peace a Chance: Exploring the Vietnam Antiwar Movement, edited by Melvin Small and William D. Hoover. Syracuse: Syracuse University Press, 1992, 93-115.

Cameron, Juan. “Our Gravest Military Problem Is Manpower.” Fortune (April 1971): 60-63

Cameron, Juan. “The Armed Forces’ Reluctant Retrenchment.” Fortune (November 1970): 68.

Christgau, Robert. “Phil Ochs, 1940–1976.” Village Voice (April 19,1976).

Cleaver, Thomas McKelvey. “The Oleo Strut Coffeehouse and the GI Antiwar Movement.” Rag Blog, (Accessed July 22, 2008).

Coppedge, Clay. “Ode to the Oleo Strut.” Texas Escapes Online Magazine, (Accessed September 3, 2007).

Dane, Barbara. “The Oleo Strut.” Guardian, (July 30, 1968).

Goldman, Nancy. “The Changing Role of Women in the Armed Forces.” American Journal of Sociology 78, no. 4 (January 1973), 892-911.

Grandstaff, Mark R. “Making the Military American: Advertising, Reform, and the Demise of an Antistanding Military Tradition, 1945–1955.” Journal of Military History 60, no. 2 (April 1996): 299–323.

Grose, Andrew. “Voices of Southern Protest during the Vietnam War Era,” Peace & Change, Vol. 32Issue 2 (April 2007): 153–167.


Heinl, Robert D., Jr. “The Collapse of the Armed Forces.” Armed Forces Journal 108 (June 7, 1971): 30–38.

Heinl, Robert D., Jr. “Draftees vs. Lifers: Loser Is Army Morale.” Armed Forces Journal 108 (May 3, 1971): 19.

Kirk, Donald. “Who Wants to Be the Last American Killed in Vietnam?” New York Times Magazine (September 19, 1971).

Linden, Eugene. “The Demoralization of an Army; Fragging and Other Withdrawal Symptoms.” Newsweek (October 25, 1971): 67-68.

McAninch, William Shepard. “The UFO.” South Carolina Law Review (Winter 1995): 363-79.

Rinaldi, Matthew. “The Olive-Drab Rebels: Military Organizing during the Vietnam Era,” Radical America 8 (May–June 1974).

Sherill, Robert. “Must the Citizen Give Up His Civil Liberties When He Joins the Army?” New York Times Magazine (May 18, 1969).

Zeiger, David. “Did the GI Movement End the Vietnam War? And What Is the Real Legacy of the GI Coffeehouses?” Different Drummer Cafe, movement.html (accessed April 19, 2010).



DePastino, Todd. Willie & Joe: The WW II Years—Bill Mauldin, Vols. 1 and 2. Seattle: Fantagraphics Books, 2008.       

Mailer, Norman. Armies of the Night: History as a Novel, the Novel as History. New York: New American Library, 1968.




Selective Bibliography of Poetry Written by Veterans

Compiled by W. D. Ehrhart




Winning Hearts and Minds: War Poems by Vietnam Veterans

Jan Barry, Basil Paquet & Larry Rottmann, eds.  1st Casualty Press, 1972.


Demilitarized Zones: Veterans After Vietnam

Jan Barry & W. D. Ehrhart, eds.  East River Anthology, 1976.


Carrying the Darkness: The Poetry of the Vietnam War. 

W. D. Ehrhart, ed.  Texas Tech University Press, 1989.


Unaccustomed Mercy: Soldier-Poets of the Vietnam War.

W. D. Ehrhart, ed.  Texas Tech University Press, 1989.


Visions of War, Dreams of Peace: Writings of Women in the Vietnam War.

Lynda Van Devanter & Joan Furey, eds.  Warner Books, 1991.


From Both Sides Now: The Poetry of the Vietnam War and Its Aftermath.

Philip Mahony, ed.  Scribner, 1998.


Mountain River: Vietnamese Poetry from the Wars. 

Kevin Bowen, Nguyen Ba Chung & Bruce Weigl, eds.  University of Massachusetts Press, 1998.



Single-Author Volumes


The Moon Reflected Fire. 

Doug Anderson.  Alice James Books, 1994.


After Our War.

John Balaban.  University of Pittsburgh Press, 1974.


Locusts at the Edge of Summer: New & Selected Poems.

John Balaban.  Copper Canyon, 1997.


Earth Songs: New & Selected Poems. 

Jan Barry.  iUniverse, Inc., 2003.


Returning  Fire. 

D. F. Brown. San Francisco State University, 1984.


Ghost of a Person Passing in Front of the Flag

D. F. Brown. Bloomsday, 2018.



Michael Casey.  Yale University Press, 1972.


Between a Rock and a Hard Place.

Horace Coleman. BkMk Press, 1977.


Lost in America.

David V. Connolly.  Viet Nam Generation/Burning Cities, 1994.


Beautiful Wreckage: New & Selected Poems.

W. D. Ehrhart.  Adastra Press, 1999.


The Long War Dead. 

Bryan Alex Floyd.  The Permanent Press, 1983.


Dien Cai Dau. 

Yusef Komunyakaa.  Wesleyan University Press, 1988.


War Story. 

Gerald McCarthy.  The Crossing Press, 1977.


Caliban in Blue. 

Walter McDonald.  Texas Tech University Press, 1976.


Lessons Learned. 

Dale Ritterbusch.  Viet Nam Generation/Burning Cities, 1995.


Far from the Temple of Heaven.

Dale Ritterbusch.  Black Moss Press, 2006.


Song of Napalm. 

Bruce Weigl.  Atlantic Monthly Press, 1991.

Photograph Collections


 USS Coral Sea Stop-Our-Ship movement: by Steve Rees

Steve Rees photographic archives
Opposition of sailors' wives on the USS Coral Sea by Steve Rees

William Short
“A Matter of Conscience: GI Resistance During the Vietnam War”


Harvey Richards Media Archives

Sir! No Sir! David Zeiger’s film on the GI antiwar movement


Vietnam: The Quiet Mutiny by John Pilger

“The Paris talks or the demonstrations at home. It is ending because the largest and wealthiest and most powerful organisation on Earth, the American Army, is being challenged from within, from the very cellars of its pyramid, from the most forgotten, the most brutalised and certainly the bravest of its members. The war is ending because the grunt is taking no more bullshit.”


The War You Don’t See by John Pilger

Michael Uhl's essay/review of My Lai: Vietnam 1968, and the Descent into Darkness in the Mekong Review and


Michael Uhl's review of Hue 1968



“This RESOURCES section is a work-in-progress. Contributions are welcome for all categories. Please send in a one sentence explanation and then the link.” email:

“This RESOURCES section is a work-in-progress. Contributions are welcome for all categories. Please send in a one sentence explanation and then the link.” email:

Antiwar Veterans Organizations


Veterans For Peace

Veterans For Peace Chapter 160 (Vietnam)

Vietnam Veterans Against the War

Full Disclosure


The Movement by American Veterans to expose War Crimes in the Vietnam War

Throughout 1970 and into 1972, American military veterans who had served in Vietnam came forward to publicly denounce the widespread commission of atrocities by U.S. forces, most disturbingly against Vietnamese civilians, that they had witnessed during their tours of combat.

This rising tide of protest by combatants recently returned home was brought forth by two identifiable historical events: the belated revelation of the My Lai massacre, and the insight of antiwar organizers that public disgust following news of the shocking massacre could be built on to draw large numbers of disillusioned veterans into the antiwar movement. No one understood more intimately than those who’d been doing the fighting that, while My Lai was certainly grotesque in the scale of its slaughter, it was by no means exceptional. Mass murder and other atrocities, like torture and the killing of prisoners, were being committed by their units daily, and resulted from policies dependent on the overwhelming superiority and often indiscriminate use of fire power available to American forces who had adopted the cynical metric of counting the Vietnamese dead, combatants or otherwise, to lay claim to battlefield victories.

With the founding of Vietnam Veterans Against the War (VVAW), returning veterans had already been visibly present in the antiwar movement for at least two years prior to this war crimes-related upsurge of activism in their ranks. The vets in the vanguard of this movement had typically expressed their opposition to the war by participating under their own banners at mass antiwar demonstrations. A few veterans, however, had already given public testimony of American war crimes in Copenhagen (November/December 1967) at the second session of the International War Crimes Tribunal, created by the British philosopher Lord Bertrand Russell.

When a member of the Russell Tribunal migrated back to New York in late 1969, he created the Citizens Commission of Inquiry on U.S. War Crimes in Vietnam (CCI) as a vehicle to continue the gathering of veteran testimony for which many in the mainstream media were now open to providing coverage. Leadership at CCI was assumed by two antiwar organizers who had not served in the military, Jeremy Rifkin and Tod Ensign. Their talents combined to put before Americans an uncomfortable picture of the true nature of the war being fought in their name. Rifkin and Ensign were soon joined by military veterans, like Michael Uhl, whose personal experience of the war and access to other veterans, contributed to CCI’s effectiveness.

While CCI activists crisscrossed the country, creating public forums for veterans to provide firsthand accounts of American atrocities, often depending on local VVAW chapters to provide leads on veterans who willing to testify, the antiwar veterans’ movement began to gain the sympathy of the public who might have ignored the critique of the war advanced by the movement at large, but were willing to hear criticism about the war from those who served. With its own membership growing rapidly by mid-1970, VVAW joined CCI in a coalition to organize the Winter Soldiers Investigation, an omnibus presentation of every category of atrocity witnessed by veterans who had fought during every year and in every major military unit during the war.

A political split – a not infrequent occurrence in the fractious confines of the New Left – rent the alliance between CCI and VVAW in the late fall of 1970, and both groups moved forward on separate tracks, but no less committed to the objective of bringing as much attention as possible to the narrative theme that American atrocities in Vietnam were a daily occurrence. CCI assembled the scores of testimony it had been collecting throughout 1970, and held a National Veterans Inquiry (NVI) in Washington, D.C. over the first days of December. The event was widely publicized. Building on this momentum, CCI next organized four days of ad hoc hearings on war crimes on Capitol Hill itself, sponsored by Congressman Ronald Dellums, and attended by a dozen of his colleagues. These hearing took place in April 1971 during a week that saw the grand finale of war related protest demonstrations, and the arrest of nearly ten thousand demonstrators who had participated in acts of civil disobedience on May Day. The Dellums Hearings generated more headlines with shocking revelations, including another massacre. Many of the veterans who appeared at the hearings were also participating in a VVAW encampment on the Washington Mall known as Dewey Canyon III, which President Richard Nixon attempted to remove, but desisted after the Washington police, many of whom had also served in the military, refused to move against the veterans.

VVAW would organize a series of actions around war crimes throughout 1971. The year had begun with the celebrated Winter Soldier Investigation (WSI) in Detroit, roughly one month after the National Veteran Inquiry, at which scores of veterans gave accounts of atrocities they’d witnessed,. Despite WSI having been virtually ignored by the media at the time, to the degree historians have taken notice of Vietnam veterans who raised their voices to denounce American atrocities, even as their war raged on in Indochina, it has been by recognizing the Winter Soldier Investigation as the signal representative moment of that campaign by veterans to bring discredit to the war they had come to reject.

The New Legions, Donald Duncan, (Random House, 1967).
Against the Crime of Silence: Proceedings of the International War Crimes Tribunal, John Duffett, ed. (Simon and Schuster, 1968).
Standard Operating Procedure, (with the cooperation of the Citizens Commission of Inquiry on U.S. War Crimes in Indochina, John Simon Kunen (Avon, 1971).
The Dellums Committee Hearings on War Crimes in Vietnam, Edited with an Introduction by the Citizens Commission of Inquiry (Vintage, 1972).
Vietnam Awakening: My Journey from Combat to the Citizens’ Commission of Inquiry on U.S. War Crimes in Vietnam, (McFarland Publishers, 2007).
The New Soldier, John Kerrey and Vietnam Veterans Against the War, (Collier, 1971).
The Winter Soldier Investigation: An Inquiry into American War Crimes, Vietnam Veterans Against the War, (Beacon Press, 1972).


Primary Sources

Documentation on the work of CCI,




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“This RESOURCES section is a work-in-progress. Contributions are welcome for all categories. Please send in a one sentence explanation and then the link.” email:

“This RESOURCES section is a work-in-progress. Contributions are welcome for all categories. Please send in a one sentence explanation and then the link.” email: